The historical information of the Severomorsk city
For the first time mentions about "Vaenga" we find in the manuscript " Books to the Big drawing ": "... And is lower than hailstones Kola of 30 km has fallen in sea to a passage in Kola Vaenga river". Aboriginals of Kola peninsula - Saams. They among the first came here and have found out the big herds of deers and small twisting river, full of a fish. They named it Vaenga. Today it is difficult to tell, that means this name. Some researchers speak, that there was it from Saam's word "Vaadg". It means the deer. There is also other opinion. The sorcerer (saams called him - "poid") played an important role in their lifes: he both treated inhabitants, and learned (found out) all news from gods, consulted on them on any economic questions. One of three magic animals used by "poids" during a ceremony of sorcery, was the deer which named "vuoingga" , that in translation meant "magic". So, Vaenga is " the Magic river ", or " Magic place".
In the pre-war directory it is told: " In Vaenga on east coast of Kola bay in 26 kms from city of Murmansk the settlement Vaenga is formed in 1896-1897 years ". Поселенцы lived in the wooden cut houses constructed from a local wood. Were engaged in a hunt, fishery and cattle breeding. Later they began to process the ground to sow bread, to raise vegetables, to plant cows and ships. According to a regional study of local lore museum, in 1917 in Vaenga lived only 13 persons.
In 1926 in Murmansk the office on preparation of a wood was organized. One of artels have directed to us, in Vaenga. Woodcutters conducted preparation of wood (today to us difficultly to present, that on a place of our streets the wood once rustled). The barrack - hostel, the first bath were constructed, the line of telecommunication is laid. Were kept information, that the logs intended for construction, were took on horses in a unique not boggy place - there where the city stadium is now located.
Life in settlement was gradually adjusted. But it is not known, how there was destiny of Vaenga, if the nonfreezing Kola gulf has not involved attention of militarians. 1933 in our edges (territories) has visited military - the governmental commission (I.Stalin, K.Voroshilov, S.Kirov) that has chosen the most successful bays for accommodation of the ships of created Northern Fleet.
June 7, 1934 Advice of Work and Defense of the USSR has accepted the decision " About development military - sea bases and air stations of naval forces of the North ". The main base of a flotilla chose settlement Polar, rear - Vaenga, ship-repair - Murmansk. The constant air station of sea aircraft should be in a lip Graznaya (nowadays - settlement Safonovo) with its subsequent expansion in Roslykovo and Chalmpushke. Pilots and engineering together with the soldiers of building battalions erected storehouses for fuel and an ammunition, the railway. During several months each commander and soldier not less than 4 hours per day fulfilled on construction.
In parallel with military objects the habitation was under construction. In 1938 military builders have handed over street of wooden two-storeyed houses on the mountain Ptichya (Verhnee Varlamovo). And in one-year two brick houses were constructed. Today it is houses 10 and 11 which Safonov's street have begun. In 1940 one more street of two-storeyed houses on Top Vaenga which then began to refer to Northern has appeared. Built with enthusiasm, quickly and qualitatively, but work was interrupted by intrusion of fascist Germany. Since August, 1941 all construction was inhibited.
During all war Northern fleet reliably covered seaside flank of 14-th army from landings and impacts of the enemy ships, protected the sea messages, broke transport transportations of the enemy and deprived with its initiative on the sea. During war various aviation shelfs were based on air station Vaenga - 72-nd (in the subsequent 2-nd Guards B.F.Safonov's name) fighter's, 24-th (in the subsequent 9-th Guards) mine-torpedo, 118 prospecting. Those who read the novel " Two captains ", without effort find out in the description of flying bases air station Vaenga. Veniamin Kaverin finished the novel in the North, during war. Here he has lodged the main hero - Alexandr Grigorev. Other hero, but he is real - Boris Safonov - rose from this air station in air. And he lived in that first stone house 10 in the street which then will carry his name.
Moorings Vaenga there left on support of allied escorts destroyers of a squadron of the surface ships. Among them was and glorified Guards destroyer "Gremiyshy". Here since August, 1944 there were the ships given by allies to Soviet Union in time using on account of a reparation (the trophy ships of capitulating Italy): old English linkor " Royal Sovereign " which has received the name "Arkhangelsk", and the American cruiser "Milwaukee" ( which "Murmansk" began to refer to).
After heavy and wearisome war life prevailed. Since June, 3, 1945 the fleet has passed on a mode a peace time, and Vaenga again began to be built up intensively. Both to seamen, and inhabitants, and, certainly, it would be desirable builders, that their settlement was the most convenient and beautiful. You see even before war Vaenga it was recognized as the best place of basing on the arrangement. Builders did not begin to fall asleep sand marshy lowland in the center of the future city, have kept there natural vegetation. And then here they've made beautiful park, which became a favourite place of rest of the townspeople. Building Top and Average Vaenga as mushrooms after a rain have grown one-storeyed small houses on slopes of hills proceeded.
August, 19, 1945 in Aviagorpdok town the monument to the Hero of Soviet Union - pilot Boris Safonov was solemnly open. It was work of the known sculptor of Lev Kerbel . Later in 1961, at entrance to settlement Safonovo the copy of this monument was established. One more bust of the hero was established by sculptor E.Kitajchukom and in Safonov's square in Severomorsk. Boris Feoktistovich Safonov first of pilots of sea aircraft of the country has brought down the enemy plane June, 24, 1941. For incomplete year of war (he was lost May, 30, 1942) B.Safonov has made 224 fighting starts, has brought down 39 enemy planes, including 25 personally. Pilots have brought in the significant contribution to route of fascist armies in Murmansk region. As a result of operations it was sunk 178 various ships and courts, it is destroyed 1045 planes of the opponent, from them 933 - in air battles.
September, 19, 1945 the decision " About assignment of names to streets, the areas and lanes of settlement Vaenga " was accepted. This day 19 streets and lanes have received "registration". September, 1, 1947 from Polar in Vaenga the staff and management of Northern fleet have transferred the base. They were placed in a new four-storeyed building. Together with a staff the publishing house and edition of newspaper "Krasnoflotec" which began to refer to " On guard Zapoljar'ja " have moved.
In the same 1947 the first high school was open. Its director have appointed Alexander Aleksandrovicha Vereshchagina. Classes of school settled down in several wooden structures. In settlement Vaenga to this time already there was all necessary: post office, telegraph and the phone, savings bank, a fire-fighting crew, a dining room, a bath. One of the most significant objects of post-war construction well equipped stadium was. The population of Vaenga made 3884 persons, and with adjoining settlements - 6210 person.
In 1948 in Vaenga for the first time was formed council of deputies of working which has headed P.P.Zadorozhnyj. April, 1, 1950 in settlement the station of first aid was created. More than 7 years supervised over it Tatyana Jakovlevna Genis. Today she(it) the honourable citizen of city and still working in medicine.
April, 18, 1951 the working settlement Vaenga has received the new status and a new name city of Severomorsk. There were many opinions concerning the name: КKrasnoflotsk, Safonovsk, Krasnogvardeisk. Became deciding P.Zadorozhnogo's offer: the defenders of Murmansk region within Great Domestic war named themselves with "Severomorci".
The status of city, besides naval capital, obliged to much. And already in the first fifth anniversary of existence Severomorsk has sharply changed the person. In 1954 on a place former career, at the basis of a hill from which takes the beginning street Safonova, was constructed the rest House of officers. In a building where this establishment earlier was placed, the Base sailor's club has settled down. The big event in cultural life of city became opening in 1956 of a cinema "Russia". It was the first wide-screen a cinema in Murmansk area. In October, 1955 in the street Sports (the former name of street Golovko) young Severomorsk's the hands the first stones of the base of the future House of pioneers have put in pawn. And after one year it(he) has solemnly flung open the doors. At that time there were only 8 small circles which now have turned to the big creative collectives.
The valley Bottom of Vaenga, planned as the basic place of building, was only rather convenient for this purpose. Its(her) kind half was boggy, other part is combined from fine-grained sand with a high level of subsoil waters. However an environment architects and designers also have decided to use at first sketches of Severomorsk in future. The main task which they put before themselves, - to construct the city convenient for life and adequate to exacting requirements of an architectural aesthetics. And it was possible to them. If to look at our city from the side it is necessary to notice, what surprising originality gives to it a special, step lay of land and hills environmental a valley. It also has suggested an idea to architects to use natural outlines of a valley and to enter in plan's structure of city a trident - the three-beam circuit, characteristic for old Russian cities. To tell the truth, then on a place of the future Seaside area from which a fan should miss Safonov's street, Dushenov's street and Sgibnev's street, lapped sea...
The main beam of a trident became, certainly, the Safonov's street.It makes impression the integrity, successfully found parity(ratio) of length, width, heights, buildings. A straight line as arrow,it is built up by simple and strict houses, thus as though emphasizing quiet smartness of city of military seamen. The known master of architecture, the winner of the State premiums V.N.Simbirtsev, walking for the first time along the Safonov's street, has exclaimed: " Yes this is magnificent! It impresses the same as the Rossi's street ".
By the sixtieth years the city was already thoroughly equipped - the bakery, sausage factory, shop on manufacture of soft drinks let out production, has entered in build a swimming pool, and in houses TVs have appeared.
Peace life was adjusted. But the city has not forgotten about the front destiny and courage of Severomorsk's citizens , protecting the country. November, 6, 1961 on Northern hill, near to the future Seaside area, the 130-millimetric ship gun - a "alive" monument to gunners of glorified 221-st sea battery of Northern fleet which senior lieutenant P.F.Kosmachev odered about was established. It has opened fighting account June, 22, 1941, having sunk the enemy ship. The townspeople with the big respect concerned to this monument and though to pass to it through a bog was uneasy, here always there were people.
Architects did not lose hope to transform it from a bog into the modern beautiful area and a place for festivals. It is necessary to tell, that at this idea was where more opponents, than supporters: well what walks at a cold gulf on an ice cold wind? The assistant to the commander of Council of Federation on construction Boris Stepanovich Fulik has supported enthusiasts - he liked courageous projects.
Composite core of the area became a 27-meter monument to seamen - from Severomorsk, heroes of defense of Murmansk region within Great Domestic war. Was conceived to establish it(him) on island Grease, on the means collected Severomorsk's citizens even in 1945. The decision on a construction of a monument on island was at that time clear: you see Severomorsk then yet was not. The settlement Vaenga could not apply for such honour, and by Grease the way of each ship which is coming back to native coast laid. The project was ordered to known Moscow masters - to architect A.N.Dushkin and to sculptors of G.V.Neroda and J.G.Neroda. There were many disputes, where and as it to put. On open discussion the public of city has supported A.Shashkov's variant.
In June, 1973, in day of 4,0-anniversary of Northern fleet, opening a monument was held. This day on fresh asphalt of the Seaside area for the first time a solemn march seamen have passed, saluting rising forever on the permanent post "seaman Alesha" - so the townspeople began to name a monument.
The seaside area became a sea gate of city. It is especially good in the summer evenings. Filled with gold of the midnight sun the gulf as though merges with asphalt, and it seems, not on water, and the ships directly along the street are floating.
And to a 50-anniversary of Northern fleet on a map of city the new area - the Area of Courage has appeared. On it the whole memorial complex in honour of Severomorsk's citizens , battling for freedom of the country was placed. With the first has occupied a place of honour a bomber of "Silts - 4". In the beginning of December, 1942 the plane has once again risen in air and at once was attacked to two "messerchmits". Commander of crew fatally wounded in a backbone the senior lieutenant of item. Clerks nevertheless has managed to put on the plane... Then forever has risen at a mooring well-known "Katusha" - a submarine "To - 21" which war was odered about by the glorified submariner the Hero of Soviet Union N.A.Lunin. The crew of a boat has sunk 17 ships of the opponent, torpedoed German linkor "Tirpicz". Beside the torpedo boat "TK-12", participating in 50 fighting operations on the sea has flied up on a concrete wave. Among commanders of a boat there was a Hero of Soviet Union A.O.Shabalin, the Hero of Soviet Union G.M.Palamarchuk.
Severomorsk actively continued to equip with modern conveniences and got features of sea city more and more. They were looked through not only in the architectural "excesses" decorating facades of buildings with a stucco moulding with naval symbolics, but first of all in names of streets: Ship, Sea, Sailor's... Among the first on a map of city names of heroes of war have appeared: Safonov's, Golovko's, Dushenov's, Sgibnev's, Sivko's, Kolishkin's, Gadgievo's, Al.Kovalev's. The tradition to immortalize memory of worthy people in names of streets was kept and in more later time. In 1970-1980 years when there was especially rough construction, on a map of city have appeared names known Severomorsk's citizens which have brought in the significant contribution and to development of Northern fleet, and to becoming its capital: admirals F.J.Sizov, J.I.Padorin, and. T.Chabanenko, general B.S.Fulik. And in honour of those who is direct, the hands erected city, one of streets was named street of Naval builders. Not surprisingly, what exactly builders, alongside with giving out(oustanding) naval commanders, steel and the first honourable citizens of city.
Because of lack of the territories suitable for building,
the city lasted up.
In 1953 the Children's musical school was solemnly open. Some decades in succession supervise over it the deserved art worker of Russian Federation E.S.Pasternak. In August, 1971 the Children's art school has accepted the first pupils. After one year of the beginning to work the Station of young technik's.
In city there was a special creative atmosphere which promotes disclosing of talents at any age. Any more one ten years at the naval newspaper " On guard Zapoljar'ja " operates literary association " Polar light ". From here have stepped in the big literature prose writer Leonid Krejn. Is in city and a fine art studio over which the deserved art worker of the Russian Federation Anatoly Sergienko stretch supervises. Many young artists have found here skill, and their works are on display not only in showrooms of area, but also abroad.
Special severomorsk's citizens the ensemble songs and dancings of Northern fleet, unique such collective behind Polar circle uses love. Where it acted - in Russia, Spain or Canada - to it always is accompanied with spectator success. More than 20 years worked in it the known composer, the conductor and chorus master Victor Vasil'evich Gostinsky. His many products were included in "gold" fund of ensemble. First number of the city newspaper " the North Sea truth " (" North Sea messages ") January, 1, 1972 was published. The start in life to it was given by skilled journalist E.I.Jalovenko. Today " North Sea messages " became the appreciable phenomenon in public life. Besides the printed periodical press, in city daily leave in an ether of transfer of radio "Severomorsk " and a television studio of Northern fleet - the first military television studio in Russia. In one year of a 300-anniversary of the Russian fleet the Museum of city and fleet which became the present historical-cultural center is formed.
Among severomorsk's citizens it is a lot of enthusiasts of sports movement who actively are engaged in favourite kinds of sports. In city the set of sports competitions will be carried out(spent). Many already became traditional, as, for example, the All-Russia tournament on boxing of memory of the prize-winner of Olympic games of Vadim Emel'janov. Annually lasting many days bicycle races organizes cycling club "The Pilgrims", and not only within the limits of our country, but also on the countries of foreign countries. North Sea cycling club was recognized as the best public organization of area on work with teenagers.
November, 26, 1996 the Russian Federation city of Severomorsk as large naval base is transformed by the Decree of the President in BUT (the closed administrative-territorial formation(education)) with inclusion of settlements: Safonovo, Roslyakovo, Safonovo-1, Severomorsk-3, Shukozero. It became the sixth in Murmansk area the closed territorial formation(education). The new status has enabled city to strengthen a housing and communal services to carry out a lot of social programs, to support business.
The basis of sector of economy of Severomorsk is made by the enterprises of the food-processing industry. Their production is popular at inhabitants of all Kola peninsula. Bread "Original" a North Sea bakery also it is artificial mineral water "Arctic regions" of a factory of soft drinks "Tony" there were finalists of the All-Russia competition " 100 best goods of Russia " - it appropriated(gave) the Silver mark. Sterilized milk "Latona" was marked by a gold medal of the Second International exhibition - competition " the All-Russia fair. The quality symbol of XXI century ", and at the end of December, 2000, at the final stage of competition, - platinum is familiar.
16 percents of receipts in the local budget give 87 small enterprises, on which working about 1000 persons. Activization of economy has appreciablly had an effect on employment of the population: for last two years the number of the unemployed in city has decreased twice. The technical base of telecommunication improves - on change to analog stations come digital. The network of a cable television extends.
The administration of city pays the big attention programs of the help to socially unprotected groups of the population in which all categories of citizens from children up to pensioners are taken into account(discounted), to the program of resettlement from BUT. Special pride - the Centre of social service of citizens. Here североморцам advanced age and to invalids render the psychological help, legal consultations, but the most important - employees of the centre help them to feel completeness of life again.
The network of public health services of city includes 14 treatment-and-prophylactic establishments. A basis of it polyclinics make the central regional hospital, a maternity hospital. In October, 2000 the chamber due to which it is possible to treat a lot of chronic diseases successfully is handed over on a turn-key basis new, while unique in Murmansk area, спелеоклиматическая. City it changes, becomes appreciable more cleanly and more beautifully. City and country parks have changed, they began to look more well-groomed and cosy. It made conveniently out the approach to a natural spring in country park.
Severomorsk is patron above big ship which carries a name of naval capital, and of a frontier post "Tuva-guba" to which the name "North Sea" now was added.
Severomorsk both on age, and on spirit. Not casually it occupies one of the first places in Murmansk area on birth rate. Annually at 17 schools of city sit down school desks about 11 thousand young citizens. Many, having received higher education in large cities, again aspire to return here, on the "small" native land.
Severomorsk it is beautiful at any time year.
In 2001 Severomorsk has noted the "gold" anniversary. For city - it is a little 50 years, but it has already justified a high rank of naval capital: became a reliable mooring for seamen and the warm house for everyone who lives in it.